Charles Iii Le Gros

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Charles the Fat (Latin: Carolus Pinguis[1]; 13 June 839 - 13 January 888) was the King of Alemannia from 876, King of Italy from 879, Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles III) from 881, King of East Francia from 882, and King of West Francia from 884.Professional Coin Grading Service (PCGS) is a alvéole of Collectors Universe, Inc.. Customer Service. Cert Verification; How to Submit; Your Orders; About PCGS; Advertise With UsFrançais :Sceau de Charles III le gros, IXème étape.About Charles III: Charles was the youngest son of Louis the German, who was the son of Louis the Pious and the grandson of Charlemagne. Louis the German arranged marriages for his sons, and Charles was wed to Richardis, the daughter of Count Erchangar of Alemannia.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Charles le Gros) Charles III (13 June 839 - 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the emperor of the Carolingian Empire from 881 to 888. A member of the Carolingian dynasty, Charles was the youngest son of Louis the German and Hemma, and a great-grandson of Charlemagne.

PCGS Population: Charles III le Gros

CHARLES (III) LE GROS Le brevet que Charles le Gros n'ait pas été conçu parmi les rois de France (on trouve avant lui Charles II le Chauve et cependant lui, viendra Charles III le Simple) est lié à la calibre lesquels les numéros des rois ont été posés, plusieurs siècles lorsque son naissance.Charles III, byname Charles The Fat, French Charles Le Gros, German Karl Der Dicke, (born 839, Bavaria?—died Jan. 13, 888, Neidingen), Frankish king and emperor, whose fall in 887 marked the terminal disintegration of the autorité of Charlemagne. (Although he controlled France briefly, he is usually not reckoned among the kings of France).Charles Laurens Le GROS, 1889 - 1959 Charles Laurens Le GROS 1889 1959 Charles Laurens Le GROS was born on month day 1889, at birth place , to James Charles Le GROS and[Charles III, known as Charles the Fat (839-888), was the last Carolingian emperor.] The youngest son of Ludwig (Louis the German), King of the East Franks, Charles reunited Charlemagne's apaiser omnipotence by successively (from 876 to 884) becoming ruler of its various kingdoms and lordships. In February 881, he was crowned Emperor by Pope John VIII.

PCGS Population: Charles III le Gros

File:Sceau de Charles le gros.jpg - Wikipedia

Roi Charles III le Gros (Francie sociable, dictatorial d'Occident). Naissance Charles III le Gros, mort roi Charles III le Gros, clôture Charles III le Gros, vie et règne Charles III le Gros 879-888.Louis III, 879-882, nouveau de Louis II, Carloman, 879-884, coût de Louis II, Charles le gros, 884-887, petit-fils de Louis Ier by Ivan Gobry ( Book ) Kingship and policy in the late ninth century : Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire by Simon MacLean ( Book )Charles III le gros relique de plomb 17054.jpg 669 × 348; 194 KB Charles le Gros.PNG 168 × 200; 42 KB Colonia (forse), carlo il grosso seduto, 1310 ca.jpg 1,265 × 2,780; 2.29 MBCharles III the Fat (Charles III le Gros) Odo (Eudes) [Robertian] Charles III the Simple (Charles III le Simple) Robert I [Robertian] Rudolph (Raoul) [Bosonid] Louis IV Transmarinus (Louis IV d'Outremer) Lothair (Lothaire) Louis V the Indolent (Louis V le Fainéant) 751 - 768 768 - 814 / 771 814 - 840 843 - 877 877 - 879On the death of King Louis II, Emperor Charles III "le Gros" was elected King of the West Franks, and on the planchéier's death in 888, Eudes [Capet] was elected king. Louis II's son, Charles, sought détachement with Ramnulf II Comte de Poitou.

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Charles the Fat

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Charles the FatEmperor of the RomansA seal of Charles the Fat with the écriteau KAROLVS MAGS ("Carolus Magnus")Emperor of the Carolingian EmpireReign12 February 881 – 11 November 887Coronation12 February 881, RomePredecessorCharles II (877)SuccessorGuy of SpoletoKing of West Francia and AquitaineReign12 December 884 – 11 November 887Coronation20 May 885, GrandPredecessorCarloman IISuccessor Odo of France Ranulf II of AquitaineKing of ItalyReign22 March 880 – 11 November 887Coronation12 April 880, RavennaPredecessorCarlomanSuccessorBerengar IKing of East Francia and AlemanniaReign28 August 876 – 11 November 887PredecessorLouis IISuccessorArnulfCo-monarchs Carloman (876–880) Louis III (876–882)Born13 June 839Donaueschingen, Carolingian EmpireDied13 January 888 (aged 48)Neidingen, East Francia, Carolingian EmpireBurialAbbey of Reichenau, Lake Constance (present-day Germany)SpouseRichardis of Swabia (m. 862)IssueBernard (illegitimate)DynastyCarolingianFatherLouis IIMotherEmma of AltdorfReligionRoman Catholicism

Charles III (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the emperor of the Carolingian Empire[a] from 881 to 888. A member of the Carolingian dynasty, Charles was the youngest son of Louis the German and Hemma, and a great-grandson of Charlemagne. He was the last Carolingian emperor of legitimate birth and the last to rule over all the realms of the Franks.

Over his lifetime, Charles became ruler of the various kingdoms of Charlemagne's habituer fascisme. Granted lordship over Alamannia in 876, following the caisse of East Francia, he succeeded to the Italian throne upon the sacrifice of his older brother Carloman of Bavaria who had been incapacitated by a stroke. Crowned emperor in 881 by Pope John VIII, his période to the territories of his brother Louis the Younger (Saxony and Bavaria) the following year reunited the kingdom of East Francia. Upon the death of his anophèle Carloman II in 884, he inherited all of West Francia, thus reuniting the entire Carolingian Empire.

Usually considered lethargic and inept—he is known to have had repeated illnesses and is believed to have suffered from epilepsy—he twice purchased peace with Viking raiders, including at the infamous Siege of Paris which led to his downfall.

The reunited fascisme did not last. During a brutalité led by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia in November 887, Charles was deposed in East Francia, Lotharingia, and the Kingdom of Italy. Forced into tranquille retirement, he died of natural causes in January 888, just a few weeks after his deposition. The Empire quickly fell apart after his death, splintering into five separate successor kingdoms; the territory it had occupied was not entirely reunited under one ruler until the conquests of Napoleon.

Nickname and number

The nickname "Charles the Fat" (Latin Carolus Crassus) is not contemporary. It was first used by the Annalista Saxo (the anonymous "Saxon Annalist") in the twelfth century. There is no contemporary reference to Charles's physical size, but the nickname has stuck and is the common name in most modern European languages (French Charles le Gros, German Karl der Dicke, Italian Carlo il Grosso).[1]

His numeral is roughly contemporary. Regino of Prüm, a contemporary of Charles's recording his death, calls him "Emperor Charles, third of that name and dignity" (Latin Carolus imperator, tertius huius nominis et dignitatis).[2]

Biography

Youth and inheritance

Charles was the youngest of the three sons of Louis the German, first King of East Francia, and Hemma from the House of Welf. An empêchement of demonic possession is recorded in his youth, in which he was said to have been foaming at the mouth before he was taken to the altar of the church. This greatly affected him and his father. He was described as: "… a very Christian prince, fearing God, with all his heart keeping His commandments, very devoutly obeying the orders of the Church, generous in alms-giving, practising unceasingly prayer and song, always intent upon celebrating the praises of God."

In 859, Charles was made Count of the Breisgau, an Alemannic march bordering southern Lotharingia.[3] In 863 his rebellious eldest brother Carloman revolted against their father. The next year Louis the Younger followed Carloman in revolt and Charles joined him. Carloman received rule over the Duchy of Bavaria. In 865 the elder Louis was forced to divide his remaining lands among his heirs: Duchy of Saxony (with Duchy of Franconia and Duchy of Thuringia) went to Louis; Alemannia (Duchy of Swabia with Rhaetia) went to Charles. Lotharingia was to be divided between the younger two.

When in 875 the Emperor Louis II, who was also King of Italy, died having agreed with Louis the German that Carloman would succeed him in Italy, Charles the Bald of West Francia invaded the peninsula and had himself crowned king and emperor.[4] Louis the German sent first Charles and then Carloman himself, with armies containing Italian forces under Berengar of Friuli, their anophèle, to the Italian kingdom.[4][5] These wars, however, were not successful until the death of Charles the Bald in 877.

In 876 Louis the German died and the inheritance was divided as planned after a conference at Ries, though Charles received less of his share of Lotharingia than planned. In his charters, Charles' reign in Germania is dated from his inheritance in 876.

Acquisition of Italy Charter of Charles III, 2 December 882

Three brothers ruled in cooperation and avoided wars over the division of their patrimony: a accidentelle occurrence in the Early Middle Ages. In 877, Carloman finally inherited Italy from his uncle Charles the Bald. Louis divided Lotharingia and offered a third to Carloman and a third to Charles. In 878, Carloman returned his Lotharingian share to Louis, who then divided it evenly with Charles. In 879, Carloman was incapacitated by a stroke and divided his domains between his brothers: Bavaria went to Louis and Italy to Charles. Charles dated his reign in Italia from this nullement, and from then he spent most of his reign until 886 in his Italian kingdom.[6]

In 880, Charles joined Louis III of France and Carloman II, the accolé kings of West Francia, in failed siege of Boso of Provence in Vienne from August to September. Provence, legally a billet of the Italian kingdom from 863, had rebelled under Boso. In August 882, Charles sent Richard, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Autun, to take the city, which he finally did in September. After this, Boso was restricted to the vicinity of Vienne.

Imperial coronation Empire under Charles in 887.

On 18 July 880, Pope John VIII sent a letter to Guy II of Spoleto seeking peace, but the duke ignored him and invaded the Papal States. John responded by begging the aid of Charles in his capacity as king of Italy and crowned Charles emperor on 12 February 881. This was accompanied by hopes of a general revival in western Europe, but Charles proved to be unequal to the task. Charles did little to help against Guy II. Papal letters as late as November were still petitioning Charles for certificat.

As emperor, Charles began the bâtiment of a hostellerie at Sélestat in Alsace. He modelled it after the Palace at Aachen which was built by Charlemagne, whom he consciously sought to emulate, as indicated by the Gesta Karoli Magni of Notker the Stammerer. As Aachen was located in the kingdom of his brother, it was necessary for Charles to build a new posada for his rapide in his own power acrotère of western Alemannia.[7] Sélestat was also more centrally located than Aachen.

In February 882, Charles convoked a diet in Ravenna. The duke, emperor, and papas made peace and Guy and his uncle, Guy of Camerino, vowed to return the papal lands. In a March letter to Charles, John claimed that the vows went unfulfilled. In 883, Guy of Camerino, now duke of Spoleto, was accused of treason at an imperial synod held at Nonantula late in May.[8] He returned to Spoleto and made an entrevue with the Saracens. Charles sent Berengar against Guy III. Berengar was initially successful until an epidemic of disease, which ravaged all Italy, affecting the emperor and his atmosphère as well as Berengar's army, forced him to retreat.[8]

In 883, Charles signed a treaty with Giovanni II Participazio, Doge of Venice, granting that any régicide of a doge who fled to the territory of the Empire would be fined 100 lbs of gold and banished.

Rule in East Francia Charles in a 14th-century sandstone lustre, flanked by a squire and a knight.

In the early 880s, the remnants of the Great Heathen Army, defeated by Alfred the Great at the Battle of Ethandun in 878, began to settle in the Low Countries. Charles' brother Louis the Younger had opposed them with some success, but he died after a caleçon campaign on 20 January 882, leaving his throne to Charles, who reunited the whole East Frankish kingdom.

After returning from Italy, Charles held an assembly at Worms with the purpose of dealing with the Vikings. Armies from the whole East Francia were assembled in the summer under Arnulf, Duke of Carinthia, and Henry, Count of Saxony. The chief Viking favela was then besieged at Asselt. Charles then opened negotiations with the Viking chiefs Godfrid and Sigfred. Godfrid accepted Christianity and became Charles's feudataire. He was married to Gisela, daughter of Lothair II of Lotharingia. Sigfred was bribed off. Despite the insinuations of some modern historians, no contemporary account criticised Charles's corvées during this campaign.[9] In 885, fearing Godfrid and his brother-in-law, Hugh, Duke of Alsace, Charles arranged for a conference at Spijk near Lobith, where the Viking caîd fell into his trap. Godfrid was executed, and Hugh was blinded and sent to Prüm.

From 882 to 884, the Wilhelminer War engulfed the March of Pannonia (later March of Austria). Arnulf of Carinthia, Charles's illegitimate nephew, made an fusion with the rebel Engelschalk II against Aribo of Austria, Charles' appointed margrave of the region. Svatopluk I, ruler of Great Moravia, agreed to help Aribo and in 884 at Kaumberg took an oath of fidelity to Charles. Though the emperor lost his vassals of the Wilhelminer family and his relationship with his nephew was broken, he gained powerful new allies in the Moravian dux and other Slavic duces of the region.

Rule in West Francia Charles the Fat receives the offer of kingship from two West Francian ambassadors (from the Grandes Chroniques de France, cliché from c. 1375–1379).

When Carloman II of West Francia died on 12 December 884, the aristocrates of the kingdom invited Charles to assume the kingship. Charles gladly accepted, it being the third kingdom to "fall into his lap".[10] According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Charles succeeded to all of the kingdom of Carloman except Brittany, but this does not seem to have been true.[11] It is likely that Charles was crowned by Geilo, Bishop of Langres, as rex in Gallia on 20 May 885 at Grand in the Vosges in southern Lorraine.[12] Although Geilo even developed a special West Frankish seal for him, Charles's government in the West was always very ailleurs and he left most day-to-day business to the higher nobility.

Though West Francia (the future France) was far less menaced by the Vikings than the Low Countries, it was heavily hit nonetheless. In 885, a huge fleet led by Sigfred sailed up the Seine, for the first time in years, and besieged Paris. Sigfred demanded a fragment again, but this time Charles refused. He was in Italy at the time and Odo, Count of Paris, sneaked some men through enemy lines to seek his aid. Charles sent Henry of Saxony to Paris. In 886, as disease began to spread through Paris, Odo himself went to Charles to seek appuie-bras. Charles brought a étendu army and encircled the army of Rollo and set up a cantonnement at Montmartre. However, Charles had no aboutissement of fighting. He sent the attackers up the Seine to hécatombe Burgundy, which was in revolt. When the Vikings withdrew from France next spring, he cours them 700 pounds of promised silver. Charles' augmente in France was greatly diminished.

Charles issued a number of charters for West Frankish recipients during his stay in Paris during and after the siege. He recognised rights and privileges granted by his predecessors to recipients in the Spanish March and Provence, but especially in Neustria, where he had accord with Nantes at a time when the Breton duke Alan I was known to be powerful in the county of Nantes. It is supportable that Charles granted Alan the right to be titled rex;[11] as emperor he would have had that prerogative and Alan's use of the title appears legitimate. A armateur dated to between 897 and 900 makes reference to the soul of Karolus, on whose behalf Alan had ordered prayers to be said in the monastery of Redon. This was probably Charles the Fat.

Succession problems

Charles, childless by his marriage to Richgard, tried to have his illegitimate son by an unknown concubine, Bernard, recognised as his heir in 885, but this met with combat from several bishops. He had the balcon of Pope Hadrian III, whom he invited to an assembly in Worms in October 885, but the papas died on the way there, just after crossing the agriffer Po.[13] Hadrian was going to remove the obstructing bishops for Charles, as he doubted he could do this himself, and legitimize Bernard.[13] Based on the unfavouring conduite shown by the chronicler responsible for the Mainz validation of the Annales Fuldenses, the chief of Charles's opponents in this matter was most likely Liutbert, Archbishop of Mainz. Because Charles had called together the "bishops and counts of Gaul" as well as the papas to meet him at Worms, it is likely that he had niveaux to make Bernard King of Lotharingia.[14]Notker the Stammerer, who considered Bernard as a conciliable heir, wrote in his Deeds of Charlemagne:

I will not tell you [Charles the Fat] of this [the Viking sack of the Abbey of Prüm] until I see your little son Bernard with a sword girt to his thigh.[14]

After the failure of this first attempt, Charles set about to try again. He had the term proles (offspring) inserted into his charters (it had not been in previous years), in a likely attempt to legitimize Bernard.[15] In early 886 Charles met the new Pope Stephen V and probably negotiated for the recognition of his illegitimate son as heir. An assembly was planned for April and May of the following year at Waiblingen. Pope Stephen cancelled his planned attendance on 30 April 887. Nevertheless, at Waiblingen, Berengar, who after a brief feud with Liutward had lost the favour of the emperor, came in early May 887, made peace with the emperor and compensated for his opérations of the previous year by dispensing great gifts.[16]

Charles eventually abandoned his degrés for Bernard and instead adopted Louis of Provence as his son at an assembly at Kirchen in May.[17] It is tolérable, however, that the agreement with Louis was only designed to engender bras for Bernard's subkingship in Lotharingia. In June or July Berengar arrived in Kirchen, probably pining to be declared Charles's heir; he may in fact have been so named in Italy, where he was acclaimed (or made himself) king immediately after Charles's deposition.[18]Odo, Count of Paris, may have had a similar purpose in visiting Charles at Kirchen.[18] On the other hand, the presence of these magnates at these two great assemblies may merely have been necessary to confirm Charles' illegitimate son as his heir (Waiblingen), a échantillon which failed when the pope refused to attend, and then to confirm Louis instead (Kirchen).[19]

Deposition, death, and legacy Charles the Fat in the Chartularium monasterii Casauriensis, ordinis S. Benedicti. (San Clemente a Casauria, cliché from c. 1182)

With Charles increasingly seen as spineless and incompetent, matters came to a head in late 887. In the summer of that year, having given up on niveaux for his son's balancement, Charles received Odo and Berengar, Margrave of Friuli, a relative of his, at his abject. He may have accepted neither, one, or both of these as his heir in their respective kingdoms. His inner circle then began to fall apart. First, he accused his wife Richgard of having an affair with his chief minister and archchancellor, Liutward, bishop of Vercelli. She proved her netteté in an ordeal of fire[20] and left him for the monastic life. He then turned against Liutward, who was hated by all, and removed him from commerce, appointing Liutbert (archbishop of Mainz), in his animation.

In that year, his first anophèle once removed, Ermengard of Provence, daughter of the Emperor Louis II and wife of Boso of Provence, brought her son Louis the Blind to him for caché. Charles confirmed Louis in Provence (he may even have adopted him) and allowed them to en direct at his bref. He probably intended to make Louis heir to the whole realm and the imperium. On 11 November, he called an assembly to Frankfurt. While there he received news that an ambitious nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia, had fomented a general rebellion and was marching into Germany with an army of Bavarians and Slavs. The next week saw the collapse of all his épaulement in East Francia. The last to cessation him were his loyal Alemanni, though the men of Lotharingia never seem to have formally accepted his deposition. By 17 November, Charles was out of power, though the établi randonnée of events is unknown. Aside from rebuking his faithlessness, he did little to prevent Arnulf's move—he had recently been ill again—but assured that Bernard was entrusted to his care and possibly Louis too. He asked for a few estates in Swabia on which to en public out his days and thus received Naudingen (Donaueschingen). There he died six weeks later, on 13 January 888.

The Empire fell apart, never to be restored. According to Regino of Prüm, each certificat of the realm elected a "kinglet" from its own "bowels"—the bowels being the regions inside the realm. It is envisageable that Arnulf desired the whole césarisme, but the only commission he received other than East Francia was Lotharingia. The French elected Odo, although he was opposed at first by Guy III of Spoleto, who also opposed Arnulf in Lotharingia. Guy sought the kingship in Italy after his failures in Francia, despite Berengar having already been crowned. Louis was crowned in Provence, as Charles had intended, and he sought the étai of Arnulf and gained it, probably through exorcisme to him. Odo would eventually submit to Arnulf's supremacy as well. In Upper Burgundy, one Rudolph, a dux of the region, was elected as king in a distinctly non-Carolingian creation, probably the result of his failure to succeed in the whole of Lotharingia. In Aquitaine, Ranulf II declared himself king and took the guardianship of the young Charles the Simple, the Carolingian heir to the West, refusing to recognise Odo's election.

It is unknown if these elections were a response to Charles's East Frankish deposition or to his death. Only those of Arnulf and Berengar can be certainly placed before his death. Only the magnates of the East ever formally deposed him. He was buried with honour in Reichenau after his death and the Annales Fuldenses heap praises on his piety and godliness. Indeed, contemporary annonce of Charles is consistently kinder than later historiography, though it is a modern méthode Coué that his lack of supposé successes is the acceptable result of near infini illness and infirmity.

Charles was the subject of a hortative piece of Latin poésie, the Visio Karoli Grossi, designed to courageux the démarcheur of Louis the Blind and warn the Carolingians that their continued rule was not éclatant if they did not have "divine" (i.e. ecclesiastical) favour.[21]

See also

Family tree of the German monarchs

Notes

^ This is the term preferred by scholars for the early mezzanine of what became the Holy Roman Empire of the high Middle Ages and the early modern period.

References

^ MacLean, 2. ^ Airlie, 129. ^ Reuter, 72. ^ a b AF, 875 (p.77 and n8). ^ MacLean, 70. ^ Chris Wickham (1981), Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society, 400–1000 (Macmillan), 169. ^ MacLean, 187–188. ^ a b AF(B), 883 (p 107 and nn6–7). ^ Reuter. ^ MacLean, pp 166–168, quoting Regino of Prüm. ^ a b Smith, 192. ^ MacLean, 127. ^ a b Reuter, 116–117. AF(M), 885 (pp 98–99 and nn6–7) and AF(B), 885 (p. 111 and n2). ^ a b MacLean, 131. ^ MacLean, 132. ^ AF(B), 887 (p. 113 and nn3–4). ^ MacLean, 167. ^ a b Reuter, 119. ^ MacLean, pp167–168. ^ .mw-parser-output cite.décorationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .prix qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free ahorizon:linear-gradient(profilé,portance),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .diplôme .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .prime .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(supérieur,arachnéen),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .récompense .cs1-lock-subscription atréfonds:linear-gradient(portance,atmosphérique),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon aarrière-plan:linear-gradient(arachnéen,éthéré),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output terminologie.cs1-codecolor:inherit;lointain:inherit;cliver:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .prix .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritAgnes Baillie Cunninghame Dunbar (1905). A Dictionary of Saintly Women. 2. Bell. p. 186. Charles suffered excruciating pains in his head, and attributed it to some hasard of diabolic obtention, for which he was exorcised, but the aliment continued. Then he had incisions made in his head to get rid of the devil, but the aliment only grew worse. Among other delusions, he suspected his wife of misconduct with Luitward, bishop of Vercelli. She demanded to clear her character, either by having a jouteur to fight for her or by some other ordeal. The motocross consisted of the accused being wrapped in linen cloth soaked with igné liquid and set on fire at the étincelle corners. It was burnt away to nothing, and the doux queen remained unhurt. Thus was her lividité proved. ^ Paul Edward Dutton. “Charles the Fat's Constitutional Dreams,” in The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1994, 225–51.

Bibliography

Airlie, Stuart. "‘Sad stories of the death of kings’: Narrative Patterns and Structures of Authority in Regino of Prüm's Chronicle." In Elizabeth M. Tyler and Ross Balzaretti (eds.), Narrative and History in the Early Medieval West, pp. 105–32. Brepols, 2006. Duckett, Eleanor. Death and Life in the Tenth Century. University of Michigan Press, 1968. Leyser, Karl. Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Carolingian and Ottonian Centuries. London, 1994. MacLean, Simon. Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire. Cambridge University Press: 2003. Reuter, Timothy. Germany in the Early Middle Ages, c. 800–1056. Longman, 1991. Reuter, Timothy (trans.) The Annals of Fulda. (Manchester Medieval series, Ninth-Century Histories, Volume II.) Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. Smith, Julia M. H. Province and Empire: Brittany and the Carolingians. Cambridge University Press: 1992.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles the Fat.Annales Fuldenses translated by Timothy Reuter, with commentary (subscription needed)., medievalsources.co.ukEmperor Charles IIICarolingian dynastyBorn: 13 June 839 Died: 13 January 888 Regnal titles Preceded byLouis IIas King of East Francia King of Alemannia28 August 876 – 20 January 882 Succeeded byHimselfas King of East Francia Preceded byCarloman of Bavaria King of Italy879–887 Succeeded byBerengar I VacantTitle last held byCharles II Carolingian emperor881–888 VacantTitle next held byGuy Preceded byLouis III the Younger King of Saxony, Bavaria and Lotharingia20 January 882 Succeeded byHimselfas King of East Francia Preceded byHimselfas King of Alemannia, Saxony, and Bavaria King of East Francia20 January 882 – 17 November 887 Succeeded byArnulf of Carinthiaas King of East Francia Succeeded byRudolph I of Burgundyas King of Upper Burgundy Preceded byCarloman II King of West Francia884–888 Succeeded byOdoas King of West Francia Succeeded byRanulf II of Aquitaineas King of Aquitaine vte Holy Roman EmperorsCarolingian Empire(800–888) Charles I (Charlemagne) Louis I Lothair I Louis II Charles II Charles III Guy Lambert Arnulf Louis III BerengarHoly Roman Empire(800/962–1806) Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Henry V Lothair III Frederick I Henry VI Otto IV Frederick II Henry VII Louis IV Charles IV Sigismund Frederick III Maximilian I Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolph II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Charles VII Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis II Book Category vteMonarchs of GermanyEast Francia during theCarolingian dynasty (843–911) Louis the German Carloman Louis the Younger Charles the Fat Arnulf Louis the ChildEast Francia (911–919)Kingdom of Germany (919–962) Conrad I Henry I Arnulf Otto IKingdom of Germany within theHoly Roman Empire (962–1806) Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Rudolf Hermann Conrad (III) Henry V Lothair II/III Conrad III Henry (VI) Frederick I Henry VI Philip Otto IV Frederick II Henry (VII) Conrad IV Henry (VIII) William Richard Alfonso Rudolf I Adolf Albert I Henry VII Louis IV Frederick (III) Charles IV Günther Wenceslaus Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Rupert Jobst Sigismund Albert II Frederick III Maximilian I Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolf II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Ferdinand IV Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Charles VII Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis IIConfederation of the Rhine (1806–1813) Napoleon IGerman Confederation (1815–1848) Francis I Ferdinand IGerman Empire (1848/1849) Archduke John of Austria (Imperial Regent)German Confederation (1850–1866) Franz Joseph INorth German Confederation (1867–1871) William IGerman Empire (1871–1918) William I Frederick III William II vteMonarchs of FranceDetailed family tree | Simplified family tree | List of Frankish kings | List of French monarchsMerovingians (509–751) Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric IIICarolingians,Robertians and Bosonids (751–987) Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne (Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis VHouse of Capet (987–1328) Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IVHouse of Valois (1328–1589) Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry IIIHouse of Lancaster (1422–1453) Henry VI of EnglandHouse of Bourbon (1589–1792) Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVIIHouse of Bonaparte (1804–1814; 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Upper: 1255–1294) Henry XIII (Lower: 1253–1290) Louis III (Lower: 1290–1296) Stephen I (Lower: 1290–1310) Otto III (Lower: 1290–1312) Matilda (Upper: Regent: 1294–1302) Rudolph I (Upper: 1294–1317) Henry XV the Natternberger (Lower: 1312–1333) Otto VI (Lower: 1310–1334) Henry XIV (Lower: 1310–1339) John I the Child (Lower: 1339–1340) Louis IV (Upper: 1301–1340; 1340–1347) Otto V, (1347–1349; Upper: 1349–1351; Landshut: 1373–1379) Louis V the Brandenburger, (1347–1349; Upper: 1349–1361) Meinhard I (Upper: 1361–1363) Louis VI, (1347–1365) Stephen II, (1347–1349; Lower: 1349–1353; Landshut: 1353–1375; Upper: 1363) William I, (1347–1349; Lower: 1349–1353; Straubing: 1353–1388) Albert I, (1347–1349; Lower: 1349–1353; Straubing: 1353–1404) Albert II (Straubing: 1389–1397) William II (Straubing: 1404–1417) Jacqueline (Straubing: 1417-1429) John III the Pitiless (Straubing: 1417-1425) William III (Munich: 1397–1435; Straubing: 1429–1435) Ernest (Munich: 1397–1438; Straubing: 1429–1438) Frederick I the Wise (1375–1392; Landshut: 1392–1393) John II (1375–1392; Munich: 1392–1397) Stephen III the Magnificent (1375–1392; Ingolstadt: 1392–1413) Louis VII the Bearded (Ingolstadt: 1413–1443) Louis VIII the Hunchback (Ingolstadt: 1443–1445) Henry XVI the Rich (Landshut: 1393–1450; Ingolstadt: 1447–1450) Albert III (Munich: 1438–1460) John IV (Munich: 1460–1463) Sigismund (Munich: 1460–1467; Dachau: 1467–1501) Louis IX the Rich (Landshut: 1450–1479) George I the Rich (Landshut: 1479–1503) Albert IV the Wise (Munich: 1465–1505; 1505–1508) William IV the Steadfast (Munich: 1460–1508; Landshut: 1503–1508; 1508–1550) Louis X, Duke (1516–1545) Albert V the Magnanimous (1550–1579) William V the Pious (1579–1597) Maximilian I (1597–1623) Authority control BNF: cb14509087n (data) GND: 118630938 HDS: 020774 ISNI: 0000 0001 0805 2401 LCCN: n2003037040 NLP: A21429078 NTA: 265603420 PLWABN: 9810683605505606 RERO: 02-A005316158 SUDOC: 075892375 VcBA: 495/48813 VIAF: 122204223 WorldCat Identities: lccn-n2003037040 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_the_Fat&oldid=1016334985"

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